On 14th May, 2013 President Goodluck Jonathan declared state of emergency in three states of Nigeria which were Borno, Yobe and Adamwara. The emergency was imposed due to the increasing terrorist attacks of Boko Haram which became one of the dangerous terrorist groups after 2009, because of the conflicts between governmental forces of Nigeria.
There are other factors which boosted such horrific attacks are socioeconomic factor, political factor and religious factor. As far as socio-economic factor is concerned, the large part of the Nigerian youths are unemployed due to lack of economic and social progress resulting poverty which provides incentive for them to engage in militancy and other social vices. The poverty is cause of insurgency and terrorism. Further, political factor , after independence of Nigeria from colonial power of Great Britain it included 300 and 400 distinct ethnic groups and various expressions of three dominant religion, Islam, Christianity and Traditional Animist. These kinds of diversities also cause internal conflict within the country.
This article will be discussing about Boko Haram, its attacks and retaliation by Nigeria, international responses and human rights violation caused by the attacks.
WHAT IS ‘BOKO HARAM’
Boko Haram means ‘Westernization Is Sacrilege’ byname of Jam’at Ahl al-Sunnah li-l-Da’awahwa al-Jih’d which means ‘People Committed to the Prophet’s Teachings for Propagation and Jihad’. Originally, Mohd. Yusuf formed a group called Jam’at Ahl al-Sunnah li-l-Da’awahwa al-Jih’d translated as ‘Association of the people, of the Sunnah for preaching and Jihad’ or people committed to the Prophet’s Teaching for propagation and Jihad’ situated in the capital of Borno, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Another short name ‘Boko Haram’ was given to that group which means ‘westernization is sacrilege’ by the neighbours who would see their lifestyle and teachings.
Initially, they pretended that they were intended to uproot the corruption and injustice in Nigeria which, as they believed, arose due to the western influences, also, they were intended to impose Sharia or Islamic law. Boko Haram became popular in July 2009, when the group members were allegedly subjected to the excessive use of force by police and did not get official investigation into the matter. Consequently, they attacked on the police post, government agencies and killed number of police officers.
VIOLENCE CAUSED BY BOKO HARAM
With the intention to avenge, the group of Boko Haram moved towards their targets who were primarily police officers. They attacked on individuals in the city of Bauchi and released more than 700 inmates including Boko Haram’s members. Their primary targets were Police, Military and Government- Agencies as well as Christen Churches, Schools and Muslim Individuals who criticised their horrific activities. Their violent activities was carried on, gradually they covered many eastern parts of Nigeria.
Keeping in view the situation caused by the group the President of Nigeria made an attempt to further protect citizens. He made a proposal to grant amnesty to the Boko Haram armies if they disarmed. The leader of the group, ‘Shekau’, rejected the proposal stating that ‘Boko Haram members had not done anything for which they needed amnesty’.
Consequently, on 14th May, 2013 President Goodluck Jonathan declared ‘State of Emergency’ for three states which are Borno, Yobe and Adamwara. After a month of declaration of emergency, he declared Boko Haram a terrorist group and banned it under Nigerian Laws, which meant that group members and anyone caught aiding them would be prosecuted under the country’s Terrorism Prevention Act. The new legal designation was expected to make it easier for authorities to prosecute members of the group legally. Their violent act extended when they abducted 275 girls from a boarding school in Chibok and Borno in August, 2014. They planned three different attacks in the town of Gombaru Ngala on the Cameroon Border due to which around 336 people died, a car bombing in Jos and an attack on the Military base in Yobe. In February, 2016, Boko Haram attacked two villages in northeast Nigeria which killed 30 people, in another attack in same month two female suicide bombers killed 58 people at a Nigerian Refugee Camp and such attacks still continue in Nigeria.
RETALIATION BY NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT
To protect the civilians from the brutal violence caused by Boko Haram, President Jonnathan did many attempts and he was supported by his neighbouring countries as well. Pursuant to that President Jonnathan signed Terrorism (Prevention) Act in 2011, which was later amended in 2012, which authorised death penalty upon conviction for any individual convicted of stated terrorist acts. He granted extra powers to security without legal encumbrances. Despite added measures Nigeria failed to protect its citizens from heinous incidents which may be classified as crime against humanity.
The Speaker of the House of Representative Amino Wazeri Tambuwal stated in March 2014, that federal lawmaker must be prepared to act to end the violence. Moreover, the President Jonathan appointed veteran Security Chief, Abuja Mohammad Gusua as his new Defense Minister. With the sole agenda of ending the violence activities the first conference commenced in Abuja on 17th March, 2014. In addition to this neighbouring countries, France, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and the Republic of Benin entered into an agreement on ‘massive, joint offensive’ against the insurgency. The agreement included that the enhancement of coordination and intelligence exchange. The party countries also committed to effective border patrolling as a result of the agreement defence ministers from the six-nation Lake Chad Basin Commission agreed to establish a multinational force to bolster security in the region. Sadly, this endeavour did not prove effective since the attacks subsisted.
Then, a revisited Multinational Joint Task Force was authorised in January, 2015 by the African Union Peace and Security Council and strongly supported the United Nation. Moreover, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Benin committed to contribute to a force of 8,700 troops, which will be stationed along the Nigerian Border in order to contain Boko Haram’s regional expansion. Commissioner for Political Affairs confirmed a partnership with United Nation and the Nigerian Government in a new Weapon Collection Programme for Northern Nigeria.
Success achieved in some of the missions by Nigerian Government:-
In May, 2017 eighty two Chibok schoolgirls who were abducted by the group were released after negotiation between Boko Haram and Nigerian Government.
In February, 2018 statement of Justice Ministry stated that Nigerian High Court convicted 205 Boko Haram suspects alleging involvement with that group of terrorists and sentenced to imprisonment from three to sixty years.
In March 2018, Minister of Information and Culture Alhaji Lai Mohammad stated that 104 of the girls abducted from their boarding school have been released and returned to their hometown of Dapchi.
In May 2018, the Nigerian Army stated that it rescued more than 1,000 detainees including mostly women and children.
In May 2019, UNICEF reported that 1,727 children had been released since Civilian Joint Task Force signed an action plan in 2017 to end child recruitment.
RESPONSE OF INTERNATIONAL AGENCY
Member State Actors
United States and United Kingdom made efforts to free Nigeria from the horrific attacks of Boko Haram. The attack and abduction of school girls shook the conscience of every nation due to which France assisted in to release those girls from the custody of Boko Horam ruthless people. Where most of the countries were helping the Nigeria in combating with the Group its co-ordination and co-operation with all of them deserved to be commended. It also applauded the United States aid team and Israel Counter Terror team.
Amnesty International Report (2013-2015)
It gave special attention to the Chibok abduction wherein 276 school girls were abducted by Boko Haram. It gave high intense to migration case as a result of Boko Haram terrorism and non-functioning acts of government. According to report since May, 2013 approximately, 1.5 million people were forced to flee to other parts of the Nigerian and neighbouring countries to seek refugee protection.
Human Right Watch Report (2013-15)
This report mentioned the spreading in Nigeria not only mentioned about the Boko Haram’s human right violation but also Nigerian Government Military forces violence was extremely critical. Further, it stated that soldiers had allegedly burned homes and executed Boko Haram suspects or residence with no apparent links to the group. The Report also recommended International Community to overcome Boko Horam’s international human rights violence. The recommendations were mainly about the UK, US, EU and UN, it is basically relevant to:-
- Create a support to independent commissions to investigate human rights violations.
- Prevent abduction and sexual abuse.
- To have clear procedures to search crimes, sexual and gender violence by Boko Haram.
- Decide a condition of health- care for women and girls in Nigeria.
- Provide Psycho-Social and Mental Health Services for the victim of the sexual abuses.
From contemplating the situation occurred in Nigeria by terrorist group Boko Haram, it can be inferred that the attack shows how an offensive and arbitrary action of police and military can be turned out in massive social disaster. The situation which has been facing by Nigerian citizens since years was a consequence of extra-judicial killings of Boko Haram chief and members. Although, the avenge by that group is not at all justified since it caused human right violation at great extent, the day to day increasing violence caused social disaster as many citizens fled another countries to seek protection. As of now, the attacks by the Boko Haram still subsist in certain areas of Nigeria, and with the attacks, emergency cannot be eradicated.
- Human Right Violation By Boko Haram, written by Ozge San, published on Academia.
- International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect.
- Children in Conflict , Boko Haram Crisis by UNICEF.
- ‘Boko Haram’ United Nation Human Rights Council.
- ‘Boko Haram’ written by the Editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica.
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