This Article is written by Rahul Negi, a student of Law College Dehradun, (Uttaranchal University).
The Israel-Palestine conflict is age old dispute to control the land which is located just east of Mediterranean Sea and believed to be sacred to Jewish, Christians and Muslims around the world. However, the modern conflict began with the defeat of Ottoman Empire and the area being declared to international site and signing of the Treaty Sevres which opened the way for Jewish settlement in the area which Arab felt contrary to Hussein-McMahon Correspondence. Then in the end of II World War British PM Churchill declared to establish Jewish homeland in the area which ignited already tensed situation in area resulting into the riots commonly known as Israeli Independence war. Thereafter, the war ended with UN intervention. Soon after its formation, Israel has to be indulged in various armed conflicts and wars of which 1948 and 1967 defined the modern borders of the area. The dispute remained unsolved even after 70 years of formation of Israel and various attempts made by the World community to resolve the disputes. The world community believes in two state policies to be best for resolving the dispute. However, both Israel and Palestine have rejected the proposal as both believe in existence of one state. As to achieve the final solution for the dispute both Israel and Palestine must come together, then only the geopolitics can come up with the opportunity to resolve the dispute.
REASON OF CONFLICT
The dispute to control the piece of land just east of Mediterranean Sea is not conflict just between Jewish State of Israel and Muslim majority State of Palestinian but between the Islamic world supporting Palestine and Western world supporting the existence of Israel. The major territorial dispute between Israel and Palestinian is over the same land and which part is controlled by which country.
The land is claimed by Jewish as their historical and ancestral land since the antiquity and same is what Christian believes it while the Muslims believe it to be second most holy site dating back to couple of centuries.
The dispute in modern era dates back to early 20th Century with the end of World War Iwhich ended in the defeat of Ottoman Empire and the area was freed from its control and became new international area not under control of any European power. Later Balfour Declaration 1917 was made which promised separate Jewish Land in Palestine contradicting Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915-1916 which resulted into Arab revolts and riots between Israeli Jewish and Arab Muslims soon after the declaration lasting with the Arab-Israeli war of Independence of 1947-1949 which ended with the intervention of United Nations and partition of area under two state policy with Jewish majority Israel and Muslim majority Palestine, however, the policy failed at large followed by Fedayeen and Arab Guerrillas attacking Israel by infiltrating through Jordan, Egypt and Syrian borders.
Then in 1967 a war broke out between Arab forces backed by other Islamic countries and Israel backed by U.S and its allies commonly called six days war resulting into decisive Israeli victory which gave Israel control over West Bank from Jordan, Sinai and Gaza Strip from Egypt and Golan Heights from Syria called the Purple line. The purple line reflects the current areas under control of Israel and its hostile Arab neighbors.
The Israel-Palestine dispute is to control the piece of land just east of Mediterranean Sea which consists of both the State of Israel and the State of Palestine. The area is believed to be the holy place for:
The Christians believe formation of Israel as fulfilling of Bible prophecy and the place imperative for Second coming of Jesus. Also the presence of Church of Holy Sepulchre, Church of Annuniciation, Mount of Beatitudes, Via Dolorosa and Capernaum in Jerusalem or within Israel which are mentioned in Bible make the area one of the holiest sites in Christianity in its every domain.
The disputed area in religious scripts of Jewish was known as Judea which holds special status in Jewish religious laws while Jerusalem is considered as the holiest city in Judaism. The Jews around the world consider Israel as there national, cultural, religion and historic homeland as the area is believed to be the residence of god and the centre of earth.
Muslims across the globe consider Palestine as their holiest place after Hijaz as Baitul Maqdis is Miraj of Prophet Muhammad (Messenger of Allah) and centre of Islam. Also Baitul Maqdis was the place where second mosque after Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia was constructed and this site holds great religious significance in Hadiths and Quran. The city of Jerusalem is holiest Islamic site after Mecca and Medina as it was the place with which Jesus, Solomon, David and Abraham are connected (Prophets of Islam before Prophet Muhammad.) The city of Jerusalem is where the associates of Prophet Muhammad were buried later and the city in Islam is considered to be first direction of prayer for Muslims around the world but later on it was shifted to Kaaba in city of Mecca.
The Baha’i faith was initially the offspring of Shia Islam founded in Iran in 1863 but later on separated from Islam established by Iranian religious leader Bahaullah. The followers of Baha’ism believe that soon there will be another Prophet send by the god. Later, after the establishment of Baha’ism they were banished in Iran and sent to Acre where Bahaullah visited Mount Carmal and declared it as site for world centre for Baha’ism as it was the burial site of Prophet Bab. Further, Bahaullah was buried in Acre in 1892 which established it as a spiritual site for the followers of Baha’ism around the world and its holiest place while in 1953 marble superstructure was constructed in Mount Carmal over the burial site of Prophet Bab which established it as the second most sacred site for Baha’ism. Also the world headquarters for the faith is established in Haifa.
The State of Palestine and the State of Israel today are members of the United Nations but not all the countries around the world have recognised them. Thus the list of countries not recognizing and having no foreign relations:
- Countries that have never recognized Israel:
Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Comoros, Djibouti, Indonesia, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
- Countries that once had foreign relations but have ceased to have them today:
Bahrain, Bolivia, Cuba, Guinea, Iran, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Qatar, Tunisia, Venezuela
- UN Members:
Madagascar, Togo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde, Nepal, Bhutan, Rwanda, Burundi, Guatemala, Central African Republic, Suriname, Liberia, Antigua and Barbuda, Lesotho, Equatorial Guinea
- Non UN Members:
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
- Non Diplomatic Relations:
Armenia, Tonga, North Macedonia, Andorra, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Myanmar, Jamaica, Nauru, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Micronesia, Bahamas, Panama, Singapore, Samoa.
The Israel-Palestine conflict is to control the same piece of land which is sacred not only to Jewish and Muslims but also to the Christians around the world. The dispute dates back to the ancient times as Jewish, Christians and Muslims consider it to be rightfully their giving reference to their religious history. However the modern day conflicts began with the defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War Ist and declaration of the area as an international area with immigration of Jewish around the world to establish their homeland called Israel in the region opposed by local Arab Muslims. Soon after the formation of Israel in 1948 there have been various wars and conflicts to control the area but till date there has been no permanent solution been achieved to the dispute even after the timely recommendation of the UN and World community. The most suitable solution to the dispute is believed to be two state solutions by the World community but both Israel and Palestine oppose it as both want one state to exist. Till date there have been various negotiation agreements but no final solution could be achieved still there is hope for regional peace and final solution for the dispute if Israel and Palestine come up together then regional geopolitics could provide them with the opportunity.
·These 36 Countries Don’t Recognize Israelhttps://brilliantmaps.com/israel-foreign-relations/
·What are Israel and Palestine? Why are they fighting?
·The Israeli-Palestinian conflict explained
·How can I explain why Israel is important to the Jewish people?
·Palestine: Its significance to Muslims
·The importance of the Land of Israel in Christianity
·The Baha’i faith and its connection to Israel