HISTORY: ISRAEL AND PALESTINE CONFLICT

HISTORY: ISRAEL AND PALESTINE CONFLICT

This Article is written by Rahul Negi student of Law College Dehradun, (Uttaranchal University).

The Israel-Palestine dispute is no new but an age old conflict which dates back to ancient times to control the piece of land just east of Mediterranean Sea but the modern conflict arises after the defeat of Islamic Ottoman empire in World War I and the signing of Treaty of Sevres which opened the way for Jewish settlement in the area. The dispute for control of the area can be classified into:

BEFORE 1948:

The disputed area is sacred to Jewish, Christian and Muslims around the world as the area hold great significance for all these faiths as it is also mentioned in their religious scripts. Moreover, the area was timely ruled by Jewish believing it to be the residence of gods and their ancestral land followed by different Christian empires believing the area to be greatly associated with Jesus and the site of second coming of Jesus and then finally by the different Muslim dynasties. As the area came under Muslim dynasties non-Muslims were vanished making the area Arab Muslim majority but the situation begin to change after the end of I World War which resulted into the defeat of Islamic Ottoman Empire making the area International Area which was free from Ottoman Empire and under no direct control of either British or French under Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916.

1915-1916: Hussein-McMahon Correspondence held which was in exchange with Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire in World War I.

1917: British Foreign Minister Authur Balfour promised separate Jewish homeland in the area under Balfour Declaration. British led Egyptian forces captured Jerusalem.

1918: British forces capture whole Levant Area.

1919: Balfour Declaration was held contrary to Hussein-McMahon Correspondence as Arab Muslims revolted against Jewish homeland joining hand with Christian groups of the region to annex the area with Syria.

1920: Palestine riots occurred between Arab Muslims and Jewish. Allies Supreme Council held a meeting in Sanremo where mandate was approved to administer the area as France led Syria and British led Palestine.

1921: British Prime Minister Churchill met Palestine Muslim leader Emir Abdullah and agreed that Palestine would be administered by Emir for six months.

1922: Britain administered Palestine from 1920-1948 on behalf of League of Nations after the mandate for the purpose was drafted and approved by Allied and Associated forces.

1923: France and United Kingdom signed an agreement to exchange territories and establish borders between Syria and Palestine.

1933: Haavara Agreement signed between Germany under Hilter and Jewish Federation to facilitate emigration of German Jews.

1935: Shaykh Izz al Qasaam was killed by British Police resulting into great uprising against Jewish immigration and British.

1937: Peel Commission in its report recommended two state policy as Jewish majority Israel and Muslim majority Palestine.

1938: Jewish paramilitary organization (Haganah) which actively supported British in the region against Arab Muslim revolts.

1939: Arab revolt ceased with British assurance of White Paper which stated for separate Jewish state and Palestine within 10 years.

1940: Italian sided Germany and bombed British administered Tel Aviv and Haifa.

1942: As the Axis forces advanced North Africa, British established Palmach unit under Haganah (Jewish soldiers) in the area.

1944: Jewish Brigade was established by British.

1945: As the World War II ends the situation becomes increasingly tenuous for British.

1946-1947: 70,000 Jewish fled Europe in small boats and reached Palestine in secrecy which strengthened the Jewish movement.

May, 1947: United Nations General Assembly established UN Special Committee for the future of Palestine.

September, 1947: UN Special Committee recommended division the disputed land into Arab majority Palestine and Jewish majority Israel under two state policies.

November, 1947: General Assembly brought a resolution for partition, it was accepted by Yishuv but Arab and extreme Jewish groups rejected it. This resulted into riots between Jewish and Arabs.

1948: The riots prevailed with the evacuation of British forces killing around 2000 and injuring about 4,000 people on both sides.

AFTER 1948:

14 May, 1948: Ben Gurion declared Jewish state as State of Israel in the region following the principles of UN Charter.

15-16 May, 1948: combined forces of Syria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq attacked Israel and occupied Southern and Eastern areas of Palestine and parts of Jerusalem and Israel occupied Yehuda Mountains and repelled further attacks.

1949: War ended with signing of Armistice Agreements between Arabs and Israel.

1950-1960: After the war Arab guerrillas and Fedayeen attackers timely attacked Jewish who were trained and armed by Arab forces. Israeli Defence forces carried out various operations against attackers with the motto higher blood for blood.

1955: Israel raided Gaza outpost under Egypt due to its support to Fedayeen.

1956: Israel backed by Britain and France attacked Egypt to occupy Sinai Peninsula and control Suez Canal. Egypt nationalized Suez Canal.

1957: USSR and USA ensured Israeli retreat from Sinai Area and the area was declared buffer zone by UN.

1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) formed against Israel.

1967: Arab forces backed by non-Arabic Muslim nations attacked Israel resulting in decisive Israeli victory and expansion of its territories as Golan Heights from Syria, West bank from Jordan, Sinai and Gaza came under Israel.

1969: PLO came into power and used arms against Israeli civilians and military thus Israel retaliated and made PLO flee to Jordan.

1967-1970: PLO, Syria, Jordan and Egypt backed by USSR attacked Israel to capture Sinai.

1970: War ended with signing of ceasefire on both sides with no change over territories. PLO attacked Jordan where it was defeated and made to flee Lebanon.

1972: USSR started to train PLO in various special operations.

During Munich Summer Olympic PLO took 11 members of Israeli team as hostage. German forces took action against them killing 5 attackers while 3 attackers survived and later freed without charges.

Israeli forces attacked the PLO headquarters and its establishments.

1973: Arab forces led by Egypt and Syria attacked Israel to capture territories lost in six days war resulting in Israeli victory and no change in territory.

1974: Israel and Egypt signed ceasefire and peace agreement.

Syria signed ceasefire with Israel and declared buffer zone between them after the intervention of UN.

1977: Large settlement of Jewish in West Bank.

1978: PLO terrorists attacked Israeli city thus Israeli retaliated and attacked PLO within Lebanon pushing PLO near Beruit city. As soon as Israel declared ceasefire PLO again attacked Israel.

1979: Israel and Egypt signed Camp David Accords ending their hostilities.

1982: Due to attacks of PLO from within Lebanon, Israeli forces invaded Lebanon which ended with fleeing of PLO and establishment of Security region within Lebanon.

1985-2000:

Israel and its proxy Christians fought against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas backed by Iranian Hezbollah.

1985: Israeli forces returned from Lebanon and bombed PLO command in Tunis after its withdrawal.

1987: First Palestine uprising began against Israel in West bank and Gaza due to the revocation status of Palestine residences.

1988: PLO declared establishment of Palestinian state from Algeria.

1991: First Palestinian uprising ended with Madrid Peace Conference.

1993: Oslo Agreement secretly signed between PLO and Israel so as to recognize State of Israel and ending of terrorism against Israel.

1994: Cave of Patriarchs Massacre took place against Palestinians resulting into suicide attacks by Hamas against Israeli civilians.

1995: PLO and Israel signed Interim Agreement on Gaza and West Bank in Washington concluding I stage negotiations between Israel and Palestine. Thus Palestine would be granted autonomous status and Israel could be recognized by Palestine.

Israeli PM Yitzhak murdered by extremist Jewish group angered by the agreement.

1996: Likud Party came into power in Israel which raised questions over Oslo Agreement and brought resolution for amending Palestine National Charter.

Israeli forces killed Hamas bomber Ayyash which resulted in waves of suicide attacks by Hamas against Jewish, in turn PLO suppressed Hamas activities within Palestine.

1997: Hebron Protocol signed resulted into deployment of Israeli forces into Palestine area.

Israel sent its agent to kill Khaled Mashal (head of Hamas) but agent failed and agent was captured. In return for agent Israel sent antidotes and freed Palestinian prisoners. The release of prisoners ensured stoppage over suicide attacks.

1998: Wye River Memorandum signed between Palestine and Israel to negotiate further over peace agreements.

1999: Elections held in Israel resulting in Ehud Barak becoming Prime Minister and supporting former Prime Ministers Rabin’s Policies with Palestine for Peace.

2000: Israeli forces returned from security zone in Lebanon.

Camp David Summit held to finally conclude peace negotiations but summit failed as Palestine refused it.

Second Palestine uprising began against Israel.

2001: Ariel Sharon became new Prime Minister of Israel and due to the political unrest in Israel Sharon refused to move further in peace negotiations.

2002: Arab countries recommended political plan to end the disputes which was turned down by Israel as it required Israel to withdraw from the areas captured in 1967 war for normalizing relations with Arab countries in Beruit Summit.

Israeli Defence forces began with the campaign operation Defence shield against Palestinian terrorist in West Bank after suicide attack in Netanya.

Israel constructed West Bank Barrier as a shield against suicide bombing and other terrorist attacks over Israel.

2003: Likud Party won the Israeli elections and proposed Roadmap for peace in Aquba summit put forward with Russia, USA and European Union before Palestine leader Mahmoud Abbas which stated for the establishment of Palestine state in future in the region.

2004: PLO leader Yasser Arafat died leaving political vacuum within Palestine politics.

2005: The Vacuum was filled with Mahmoud Abbas being elected new leader of PLO but soon Abbas and Arafat came under allegations of misuse of billions of foreign aid sent to Palestine for development aiding the growth of radical group called Hamas.

2006: Hezbollah started armed operation against Israel to release Lebanese prisoners which was retaliated by Israeli forces. The war ended with UN intervention and declaration of ceasefire and pacification of Lebanon and serious blow to Hezbollah.

2007: Annapolis Conference held where both Israel and Palestine focused over two state solution and releasing joint statements.

PLO and Hamas conflict broke out resulting division of Palestine as PLO and Hamas administered.

2008: Six month truce between Hamas and Israel ended in December resulting into armed conflict between them escalating already ongoing conflict and Israel launching Operation Cast Lead to target military, civilian, police and government establishments.

2009: Operation Cast Lead ceased with success in January with inflicting huge blow to Hamas in Palestine.

US President Obama in his speech demanded for the freeze in Israeli settlement expansion around the area and asked both sides to come up for peace negotiations.

Israel imposed 10 months restriction over its settlement expansion in West Bank and called to Palestine for peace negotiations which were rejected by Palestine. As the restriction was about to expire Israel called for renewal if Palestine recognize Israel but Palestine rejected it.

2011: Deal signed to release Israeli soldier in exchange for Arab and Palestine prisoners between Israel and Hamas.

Palestine government campaigned to get Palestine recognized by the countries around the world within 1967 borders but UN has till date not voted on it.

2012: Israel launches Operation Pillar of Defence in Gaza to halt rocket attacks from Hamas and restrict terror activities resulting in casualties on both sides and targeted killing of Hamas commanders ending with ceasefire between both Israel and Hamas.

The State of Palestine applied for the non-member state of UN which was passed by 138 to 9 votes in 193 members UN General Assembly.

2014: Israel begins military operations over Hamas in Gaza after failure of US administered peace negotiations.

2015-2020

Till date there is no permanent solution to the dispute and the Hamas and Israel are till date in the state of conflict time to time.

Hamas backed by Muslim world attacks Israel and Israel retaliate the attack with its military operations which results into the casualties on both sides and Israel is working on its settlement expansion policies.

REMARKS

The last 70 years have seen lot of development in the Israel-Palestine conflict which has been centre of attention for world community which has proposed various recommendations to establish peace in the region. The international community supports two state policy but both Israel and Palestine are against it as both wants one state policy to be implemented seeing the current situation of the area it is difficult to presume that a possible peace solution is near to end this 70 years old conflict.

The region has been years of bloodshed even then, there is possibility for peace in the region if Israel and Palestine come together to advance for lasting peace and permanent solution then the regional geopolitics may provide the opportunity to resolve the dispute.