English Articles


This Article is written by Bushra Malik student of BA-LLB (Hons.) from Galgotias University.

In this dynamic world of technology and robotics, Artificial Intelligence (hereinafter referred to as ‘AI’) has its own and great role to play. Its ambit includes an information system that is encouraged by biological systems involving multiple technologies i.e. machine learning, deep learning, computer vision, natural language processing, etc. In simple words, Artificial Intelligence means when a machine behaves according to the programming of a human brain.

The Oxford Dictionary defines AI as “the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.”

The role of Artificial Intelligence from past experiences can be categorized as:-

We can access all the information through Artificial Intelligence through a virtual world by excluding personal privacy option;

We can communicate all over the world via voice, text, and images;

Decision making by recommendations given by the computers to the stock of trades and recommended medical diagnosis and it can be a criminal case and release on bail;

Bitcoin transactions are emerging in this era which implemented by blockchain, it is a way of decentralized and distributed electronic work gone through by all users and it also updates time to time;

Consumers can choose electronic commerce services which are part of computers.

Manufacture by Robots;

It also includes Semi-autonomous and soon it will be fully autonomous which means self-driving vehicles or machines of all types.


Banks Depending upon BlockChain for Various Applications

The world prefers more digitalized methods in banking systems through computers and mobile phone platforms. We can see the recent technology of blockchain by the United Arab Emirates which was started last year with the purpose to minimize the cheque fraud. Every page of cheque contains a QR code through which it keeps a cheque on the blockchain.

Then, later Banks have to clear the same through bank image-based cheque clearing system and it is the duty of bank employees to check whether there is any discrepancy regarding the same.

In starting of this system bank got a million transactions through cheque on the blockchain. As this platform processes more than a million transactions per second, therefore, a country like Japan is planning to introduce this method this year.

Saudi Arabia Granted Citizenship to a Robot

In 2017, Riyadh announced that robot Sophia (AI), positions itself as a woman and was granted citizenship in Saudi Arabia. This step contradicts a number of laws that determine the model of the behavior of subjects of legal relations in different conditions. Firstly, it contradicts the norm of Saudi Arabia citizenship that can be obtained in the following ways (Saudi Nationality System, 2018):

1. By birth

2. By marriage

3. By naturalization

Apart from this, Sophia has more rights in comparison with other woman in Saudi Arabia. It is compulsory for women, to wear Hijab and Burqah whereas Sophia appeared in front of a thousand people without the aforementioned clothes. Furthermore, women cannot go outside their houses without a male guardian but Sophia does. This is how Artificial Intelligence infringes on Laws for Women in Saudi Arabia.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the dimensions of machines to perform tasks that are associated with human decision-making. AI computer systems practice a variety of datasets and sensory inputs to make decisions. Continue with machine learning, AI touches on nearly all aspects of modern life. Since digital technology is taking place of human acts, legal matters of AI are inevitable.

? Use of Artificial Intelligence in Torts – In Tort, liability for the harm can be claimed when a semi-autonomous or autonomous vehicle had been negligent towards a passenger. There can be an inclusion of the legal implications with the decisions taken by AI. Some like cases include the recent accident of a Google Car that sideswiped a public bus in 2016, a Tesla driver?s death in an autopilot-involved crash, a motorcyclist who collided with an autonomous Chevy Bolt electric vehicle in 2017, and a pedestrian struck and killed by an autonomous Uber test vehicle in 2018. These cases on the face of it show the poor decision making of AI at particular instances as different datasets and decision algorithms use multiple datasets which evolve over time by design. The biggest question revolving this concept is that in such cases who would be considered as negligent, the programme developer or a machine?

Medication and Health Assessment – AI precision-medicine algorithms are used to predict patient risks of disease and it also assists with diagnosis and treatment selection, as well as prioritizes patient care where resources are limited. Health-oriented AI technologies are likely to draw medical malpractice dilemmas. For instance, if a radiologist who reads images misses a cancer disease then who will be liable for it? AI is there to predict the heart attack signs through the AI monitor system but if it fails and gives the false alert to you then who will be the responsible person?

Use of Artificial Intelligence in Criminal Law- The use of AI in the criminal law context raises critical legal and ethical issues. For example, what are the constitutional implications of using citywide sound sensors to detect the location of gunshots? Does a signal from a sensor form a valid basis for door-to-door or backyard-to-backyard police searches? Moreover, it has been written on how datasets addresses the facial recognition systems which create further biasness in recognition and may leads to false match. Lastly, if we are using the tools of AI-Risk Assessment for the pre-trial sentencing then the data sets based on race or socioeconomic factors may create discrimination and harm criminal legal system. It can also lead to inaccurate predictions for those who do not attend court regularly and are repeated offenders.


A “Smart Contract” can be entered into between the parties, it has the same legal validity as customary contracts. An agreement has a brilliant sufficiency to execute a few or entirety of the terms of understanding. But it can be complex in nature and muddled sometimes as it is executed by means of the Internet. There are many causes and concerns for lawyers. Firstly, it questions how a lawyer can draft a smart contract when he has no knowledge or skill of programming of AI tools. Secondly, there is a lot of data to be searched for and there are several filthy data that can be seen when access it. At that point in time smart contracts failed to be executed and now the question arises that a smart contract will be a valid contract or not? It can be seen through several cases that AI has loopholes and various issues which are required to be clarified.


Everything has both pros and cons, likewise, there are uncountable benefits of AI and some unforgettable demerits are also there. With the emergence of new technology, AI is all concur the daily tasks of humans day by day. In assisting Healthcare it is sometimes difficult to track the Blood pressure of a patient in an accurate manner. It is possibly because of poor decision making of the AI paradigm datasets which programmes according to the environment. In Indian Constitutional Law, Article 300 which talks about the “State Liability” can be a savior for manufacturer of machines. As of now no specific law which recognizes robots as a ‘person’ has been introduced in India and it is governed under the Information Technology Act, 2000.


1. Adarsh G Hegde, Bangalore Institute of Legal Studies, Bangalore, Artificial Intelligence and Law, Volume 7, November 2019: [online] Available at:file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/lex%20repository/Adarsh-Hegde.pdf. [Accessed 20 Mar. 2020].

2. Regulation of Artificial Intelligence in Selected Jurisdictions. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/artificial-intelligence/regulation-artificial-intelligence.pdf.

3. Giuffrida, I., Lederer, F. and Vermerys, N. (2018). Case Western Reserve Law Review A Legal Perspective on the Trials and Tribulations of AI: How Artificial Intelligence, the Internet of Things, Smart Contracts, and Other Technologies Will Affect the Law Recommended Citation. 68 Case W. Res. L. Rev, [online] 747. Available at: https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4765&context=caselrev [Accessed 20 Mar. 2020].

4. Matthews, K. (2019). 6 Digitization Trends Coming From AI and Blockchain. [online] InformationWeek. Available at: https://www.informationweek.com/strategic-cio/digital-business/6-digitization-trends-coming-from-ai-and-blockchain/a/d-id/1334369 [Accessed 20 Mar. 2020].

5. Whitney, M. (2019). How to improve technical expertise for judges in AI-related litigation. [online] Brookings. Available at: https://www.brookings.edu/research/how-to-improve-technical-expertise-for-judges-in-ai-related-litigation/ [Accessed 22 Mar. 2020].

6. IMAGE CREDITS- www.forbes.com